Korea Map




title dolmen


Even though countless dolmens were destroyed during the land development for new cities and agricultural purposes in the last several decades, one can still see dolmens in many areas in Korea. There are more than one hundred thousand scattered around the Korean peninsula, even on the remote island of Chejudo. They are concentrated in the western part of the Korean peninsula, especially in the Chollanam-do and Hwanghae-do provinces. Dolmens are generally found along large river basins, sometimes standing alone, but usually in groups of five, ten or even hundreds. Some years back, dolmen must have been a common feature of Korea's landscape.

Dolmens in Korea are generally classified into two types: the northern type and the southern type. The northern type, which is often called table type because of its appearance, involved constructing a rectangular burial chamber by placing several upright stones in a rectangle and covering it with a flat cover stone. The best example of this type that is in the Seoul vicinity is in Pukun-ri, a village on the island of Kanghwa-do. Although there are a few northern type dolmens in the southern part of Korea, the Han River basin is thought to be the southern limit of distribution…….





Goindol is also called Jisokmyo in Korean, Sokbung in chinese, and a Dolmen in English. Goindol(dolmen) and Jisokmyo are used as the term with same meaning, but Jisokmyo means a tomb with a dolmen erected in a large sence as it is interpreted in its Chinese character.
















Denkt u aan uw eventuele inentingen!




Name: Koindol (Dolmen) Festival
Zeitraum: Juli
Ort: Insel Kangwhado

Beschreibung: Die Insel Kangwhado ist ein geschichtsträchtiger Ort in Korea. Im Juli findet hier ein Volksfest statt. Kangwhado ist die
fünftgrößte Insel des Landes . Hier kann man sich einige Dolmen anschauen den Pomunsa Tempel und den Altar des mythischen Gründers Koreas Tan´gun.


























DIST (km)



16 Oct

Depart Portland

















Hanam, Nungnae















Taejin, Myongpa, Kansong





Soraksan Park










Misan, Rte 446





Woljong-sa, Chimbu





Sabuk, Kohan










Uljin, Pyonghae





day rides near Kyongju





day ride to Yangdok, etc.


1 Nov



day ride to Pulguk-sa





Tochon-ri, Kyongsan





Koryong, Yaro





Suryun, Kachu





Nansun, Mano





park roads





Ride to Chongju, bus to Seoul













depart for Portland














Burial mounds west of Kyongju. Presumably of Silla age (fl. 300-800)






After a four-hour bus journey from Seoul, I rented a mountain bike for my tour of the
area and soon arrived at Tumuli Park (Tomb Park), site of the burial mounds. Some
of the tombs have been excavated and are open to the public, offering views into the
funerary practices of these early Koreans. Like the ancient Egyptians, members of
royal families were entombed with material riches to aid them in the afterlife and placed
in huge mounds as a sign of their status within society.  







This homepage is designed to commemorate the designation of the dolmens in Hwasun, South Jeolla Province, as a World Heritage by UNESCO. Detailed information on Korea's prehistoric age and the Dolmen Park, where you can experience prehistoric culture, is made available.




There are over 500 dolmens on the hill around mountains, in sangkapri and zhukrimri, kochang, near kwangju, korea. This hugest 'Badukpan-type' dolmen (above picture) measures 6.5m long, 5.3m wide, 2m high. Dolmen in tosanri is near hear. Hundreds of 'Badukpan-type' dolmens and a few 'Table-type' dolmens are mixed in there like a dolmens complex.










Koch'ang-gun County, Chollabuk-do Province;

Hwasun-gun County, Chollanam-do Province;

Kangwha-gun County, Inch'on Province

34° 58' N, 126° 55' E


Dolmen Park

Location : Naeu village, Usan-ri, Songkwang-myeon Suncheon-city, Jeollanam-do. Opening time : 09:00~18:00


Suncheon station-> Dolmen Park (city bus# ; 63)
Gwangju->Gokchun by inter-city bus (get off at Gokchun)
Bulkyo->Gokchun by inter-city bus (get off at Gokchun)
Gokchun->Dolmen Park by taxi (fare 3,000 won)

As the Korea-first dolmen(Goindol) Park designated as the Jeonnam-do cultural asset material No. 154 , Dolmen Park shows dolmen(Goindol), a representative relic of prehistoric age indoors and outdoors, along the lake of Juam lake. In the area there are a total of 140 dolmens (goindols), which is the most number in Korea. 109 in Suncheon, 32 in Bosung, and 7 in Hwasoon. Life in different ares can be compared through the sites left behind by our ancestors such as those in Yuchun and Seoul. The park was established in December, 1993, after excavations were conducted in the area to be flooded due to the Juam dam which was constructed in 1991. Located 5km away from Suncheon with drive courses around the lake, the park is a great place for family outings, school trips and historical studies...



Goindol Park



















Prehistoric sites of dolmen (goindol) and other relics from past ages are displayed indoors and outdoors, along the lakeside of Juam lake. The park is the first Goindol (dolmen) park in Korea. It has been designated as the Jeollanam-do cultural asset material No. 154.

A dolmen (goindol) is a type of prehistoric tomb occurring nationwide, but found most in the Jeollanam area. They are valued for studies of prehistoric culture.

In the area there are a total of 140 dolmens, which is the most number in Korea. 109 in Suncheon, 32 in Boseong, and 7 in Hwasun. Life in different areas can be compared through the sites left behind by our ancestors such as those in Yeocheon and Seoul.




    Pyongyang, May 22 (KCNA) -- Dolmens which are believed to be built in the period of ancient Korea (early in the 30th century bc-108 bc) are to be found in the vast areas involving the Korean peninsula, northeast china and the Russian maritime province. On the basin of the Taedong River centred on Pyongyang, there are 14,000 dolmens in particular.  Dolmen which is symbolic of the ancient monument represents the resourcefulness and talent of the Korean people who have created brilliant culture since ancient times. The Korean dolmens are classified into three types according to the names of places where they were discovered-chimchon, odok and mukbang. The first-type was found at Chimchon-ri, Hwangju county, North Hwanghae Province. dolmen of this type is made of a large graveyard in which several burial chambers are designed. Every chamber has a thin flat stone set on four edgewise sides. Their top is covered with a stone roof and the chambers are supported by stone piles. therefore, it looks like the roofs laid sporadically. Advanced forms are odok-type and mukbang-type. unlike chimchon-type, the odok-type reveals its appearance in the earth, which is formed with great stone slabs erected on the three sides of the four and with a roof put on them and then a flat stone covering the remaining side. it resembles a structure consisting of four walls and the roof. The three walls of the mukbang-type are made of flat stones which are piled up like brick-laying and on top of them is a roof and the walls are reinforced with stones. This shows that the Korean dolmen developed from a simple structure into a sophisticated and refined one. These three types of dolmen representing every stage of dolmen development are found concentrically on the basin of the Taedong River centred on Pyongyang. This shows that dolmen structure finds its cradle and centre on the basin of the river with Pyongyang at its centre, like every other aspect of the culture of ancient Korea. It provides clear evidence that Pyongyang was the capital of ancient Korea which existed for nearly 3,000 years in the east, with a fine history and cultural tradition, and the cradle of the Korean nation.




Kanghwa-do (Kanghwa Island)


From the bus station, take a bus to Hajom, and ask the driver to let you off at the dolmen, or Chisokmyo. This was, for me, the most exciting thing on the island. In the middle of a field, surrounded by ginseng and rice, is a neolithic dolmen, over 2 meters high.


Goindol (Dolmen)

Dolmens are one of the types of burial that was typical of the Bronze Age in Korea. This dolmen is one of the table or northern style, being constructed by placing several upright stones in a square and covering them with a flat capstone. It is 260cm from the ground to the capstone which is 710cmX550cm, making it the largest northern type dolmen found in Korea.









Ein Dolmen in der Nähe von Seoul in der Koreanischen Halbinsel ließ sich bis zum Jahre 2500 v. Chr. zurückdatieren, anderer gleichartiger Dolmen in Liaoning (Südwestmandschurei) ließ sich bis zum Jahre 2410 v. Chr. zurückdatieren, was erkennen lässt, dass eine einheitliche bronzezeitliche Kultur schon damals in Mandschurei und der Koreanischen Halbinsel bestand.






The dolmen in Kanghwa (Ganghwa in new spelling) is a northern-type, table-shaped dolmen where ancestral rites were held. It is the biggest stone of this kind in South-Korea, measuring 2.6 x 7.1 x 5.5 meters. Of these Korean dolmen sites, I only visited the big one at Ganghwa Island (near Seoul). No entrance fee there, though the dolmen is placed in a little park and there is the ubiquitous soft drink vending machine. To simply get there, and to enjoy the Ganghwa landscape was the most interesting part of my visit. The dolmen itself is "just" 3 stones put on top of each other. I have seen those before in Holland.






Een eilandje ten oosten van Seoul. Lekker om te wandelen of te fietsen, en vooral om de stadse drukte helemaal achter je te laten

De bus naar het eiland Ganghwa vertrekt vanaf een oostelijk busstation in Seoul. Dan is het nog anderhalf uur rijden naar Ganghwa-stad. Op het busstation daar krijg ik van het niet-Engels sprekende personeel van de Tourist Information een plattegrond van het eiland, en wat folders. De verkenningstocht kan beginnen.
















After this lunch I walked into the small town near the temple to catch a bus back to Kanghwa (the city - that's the county seat of Kanghwa county). I had a bit of a wait, but made it back to Kanghwa by 1:30. I decided to walk around within the city and look at their fortress gates that have been rebuilt and to check out a palace site that was used by the Chosun Dynasty kings as a government in exile for a while when Korea was occupied in the 16th century. These were interesting enough places, but just as I was finishing up wandering around the former palace site it started to thunder - which nixed my plan to head to the site of a Neolithic dolmen about 5 km NW of town. This thing is widely photographed, etc., but it's out in a field in the middle of nowhere, so I figured it was not the place to go if thunderstorms were coming in.





Total number of Dolmens surveyed : 127
- Form : northern style- 72, Gaeseok style- 49, style unknown- 6

1999 Ganghwa Dolmen Precision Index Survey (Seoul University Center for Anthropology)


Regional distribution of Dolmen

:Ganghwa-eup 1, Songhae-myeon 13, Hajeom-myeon 55, Naega-myeon 33, Yangsa-myeon 25


Designated Cultural Property - Present status


Nationally designated Cultural Property

: Ganghwa Jiseokmyo (dolmen) (Cultural Relic No. 137)


Regionally designated Cultural Property

: Naega Jiseokmyo (dolmen) (Regional Relic No. 16)
: Ganghwa Daesan-ri Jiseokmyo (dolmen) (Regional Relic No. 31)
: Ganghwa Bugeun-ri Jeomgol Jiseokmyo(dolmen) (Regional Relic No. 32)
: Bugeun-ri Dolmen (16) (Regional Relic No. 44)
: Samgeori (A three-way junction) Dolmen (9) (Regional Relic No. 45)
: Gocheon-ri Dolmen (18) (Regional Relic No. 47)
: Gyosan-ri Dolmen (11) (Regional Relic No. 48)



Dolmens in Yanggu

Dozens of dolmens are gathered at the Museum Yard in Godaeri, Yanggu, near Chunchon, South Korea. There were 9 dolmens in Godaeri, 12 dolmens in Gongsuri, 1 dolmen in Songwuri, 17 dolmens in Gaozhakri, 13 dolmens in Haean-myon, around Yanggu Country.




Dolmens are megalithic funerary monuments, which are numerous in Asia, Europe, and North Africa. Korea has the greatest number of any country. Dolmens usually consist of two or more undressed stone slabs supporting a huge capstone. It is generally accepted that they were simple burial chambers, erected over the bodies or bones of Neolithic and Bronze Age worthies. These are of great archaeological value for the information that they provide about the prehistoric peoples who built them and their social and political systems, beliefs and rituals, arts and ceremonies, etc.


The Korean dolmens constitute what is probably the largest and is certainly the most representative assemblage of these exceptional examples of prehistoric culture in East Asia.


The Kochang, Hwasun, and Kanghwa sites contain the highest density and greatest variety of dolmens in Korea, and indeed of any country. They also preserve important evidence of how the stones were quarried, trannsported, and raised and of how dolmen types changed over time in Northeast Asia.


Kochang Dolmen Site (8.38ha)


The Chungnim-ri dolmens, the largest and most diversified group, center on the village of Maesan. Most of them are located at altitudes of 15-50m along the southern foot of the hills that run east to west. The capstones of the dolmens here are 1-5.8m in length and can weigh 10-300 tons. A total of 442 dolmens have been recorded, of various types, based on the shape of the capstone.


Hwasun Dolmen Site (31ha)


Like those in the Kochang group, the Hwasun dolmens are located on the slopes of low ranges of hills, along the Chiseokgang River. Individual dolmens in this area are less intact than those in Kochang. The Hyosan-ri group is estimated to comprise 158 monuments and the Taesin-ri group 129. In a number of cases the stone outcrops from which the stones making up the dolmens were quarried can be identified.


Kanghwa Dolmen Sites (12.27ha)


These sites are on the offshore island of Kanghwa, once again on mountain slopes. They tend to be higher than those in the other sites and stylistically early, notably those at Bugun-ri and Gochon-ri.















Gyeonggi-do Province is located in the western central region of the Korean Peninsula, with the Han River running through its center. The Han River divides the province into a mountainous northern area and open fields of its southern area. While Seoul keeps its visitors busy with so many intriguing and enticing things to see and do, this area outside of Seoul can provide a refreshing and invigorating break. Ganghwado Island is situated in the estuary of the Hangang River north of Incheon Port. This is Korea's fifth-largest island, an area rich in history and natural beauty. Major historic monuments here include an altar said to have been erected by Dangun, the legendary founder of Korea, along with fortresses, ancient walls, a celadon kiln dating to the 13th century Goryeo period, and Jeondeungsa Temple.



Gyeonggi-do Province

Pukun-ri / Taesan-ri Dolmen


A dolmen ranks very important position in the history. A dolmen gives the sight to guess what the politics and society were like when the dolmen was erected. In addition, various relics has been found there that tells us the indications of the times and social aspects. Dolmens in Korea, representative relics of the Bronze Age, have a nationwide distribution. It is an unusual thing that the dolmens are found every spot of the nation.

From the grave goods like daily commodities, accessories, arms and farming tools, tell us about then life style. The dolmen is a clue or a key to understand the social, economical and cultural aspects of the primitive age, for there found stone implements and earthen ware of the New Stone Age and bronze swords of the Bronze Age.

The dolmen culture is not only a living relics but the symbol of the power of director or ruler and a resting place of the spirit. They respected brave soldiers' memory who died in a battle and soothed their spirit, too. The dolmen in Korea can be classified into two, northern style and southern style. Pugun-ri Chisongmyo belongs to the former.





Koreanische Dolmen können in drei verschiedene Typen unterteilt werden. In den nordwestlichen Regionen bis hin zum Han-Fluss bestehen sie aus einer großen steinernen Platte, die von mehreren aufrechtstehenden Steinen gestützt wird, sie bilden eine kubusähnliche Grabkammer. Im Süden, vor allem in den Küstenregionen, ähneln die Dolmen einem Tisch, sie bestehen aus einem großen Findling, der zahlreiche kleinere Steine bedeckt. Darunter befinden sich eine oder mehrere Grabhöhlen, die wiederum mit Steinen ausgelegt sein können. In ganz Korea findet man Dolmen, bei denen der Abschlußstein direkt auf dem Boden aufliegt. Sie sind flach und bestehen häufig aus einer einzigen steinernen Platte, die quasi als Grabplatte für den unter der Erde befindlichen Sarg dient.

















Dolmen Remains District


Goindol called Jiseokmyo in Korean originated from stones supporting a big stone.  Dolmen is a compound word of Dol meaning 'table' and Men meaning 'stone' in Celtic. People of the Prehistoric Age largely depended upon surrounding environment. This caused the then people to have faith in the eternal nature, especially stone or rock a significant symbol and meaning to them. Most dolmens are found in groups, showing collective life based on blood relation. The construction of dolmens would need a lot of labor to quarry and move a giant stone. We can judge from this that a communal life centering on family, which makes possible settled life, is based on dolmen culture. In addition to the function of tombs, Dolmen also has that of a monument indicating boundary against other groups and symbolizing graveyard, or representing the authority and majesty of the group concerned.


Hyosan-ri and Daesin-ri Dolmen Remains in Hwasun

Seven groups of 300 dolmens were found which were distributed between 45m and 90m above sea level from the skirts of the Boseong Mountain Pass connecting Hyosan-ri of Dogok-myeon and Daesin-ri of Chunyang-myeon in Hwasun-gun Southern Jeolla  Province to the entrance of Mosan Village. The layer of rock bed easy to quarry lies on the top of eastern mountain occupied by each group with signs that the rock bed was artificially broken away, and small and big stones are scattered around the spot. This place has a large plain formed around Jiseok River a branch of the Yeongsan River as its background. These groups of dolmens were appointed as Historic Spot No.410 in 1995, and were registered as the UNESCO's world cultural treasure together Ganghwa of Incheon and Gochang of Northern Jeolla Province in 2000. The groups of dolmens in Daesin-ri Chunyang-myeon Hwasun-gun are distributed in the length of 1km over the hill (70 to 120m above the sea) stretched from Boseong Mountain Pass to Jidong Village. Dolmens are found in Jidong Village and farmland around it. Their representative examples are a group that has the biggest cover stone ever discovered up to date and the other group where a quarry lies.

The extra-large dolmen, the largest one in the world measured 7.6m long, 4.2m wide, 4.1m thick and more than 200 ton in weight, is supported with props placed around under its cover stone with flat bottoms.We can see that the layer of rock bed and cover stones exist around this group in the valley, and that resources for dolmens were quarried out from the layer of rock bed at the breast of the mountain. Right under the quarry, transformed table-type dolmens whose tomb rooms came to the surface and base-type ones were found in groups. It serves as the experimental education site of dolmens since we can see a series of processes related to the construction of dolmens from the process of quarrying.


Jukrim-ri Dolmens in Gochang

Gochang dolmens are found in Jukrim-ri Gochang-eup and Sanggap-ri Asan-myeon


Northern Jeolla Province, and appointed as National Historic Spot No.391. Dolmens of Gochang are distributed over its whole area. Table-type dolmens are found in Dosan-ri in the direction of Seonun Temple west of Gochang-eup. To the north from here there are Jukrim-ri and Sanggap-ri, and on the southern side of the hill at the back of Maesan Village Jukrim-ri ten groups of 442 dolmens are distributed in rows along the ridge of the hill.

The feature of Gochang dolmens is that more than 400 dolmens are crowded within a narrow limit of 1.5km. Such a distribution is the densest in the world as a single area. Table-, base-, and cover-type dolmens are all found in

Gochang. In particular, in the case of the table-type dolmens of Dosan-ri, eaves are wide and cover stones are thin as in North Korea and Yoryeong, while in the case of those of Jukrim-ri, the exposed rooms of tombs are low and cover stones are thick like base-type dolmens, emerging from the typical table-type and showing the tendency to become localized. Most of the supporting stones of the dolmens in this area are base-type and their cover stones are solid-type or giant. The biggest cover stone of them is 5.8m long, 5m wide, 2m thick and more than 1 ton in weight. The cover stones of base-type dolmens, which has post-shaped supporting dolmens, are magnificent and give us an artificial feeling. They are collectively distributed in Yeonggwang including Gochang Southern Jeolla Province.

Stone-plank-type tombs' rooms come to the surface are miniatures of table-type tomb rooms, showing combination with dolmen style as supporting stones, the feature of base-type dolmens, are found too. This is an important clue to the study of the process of the changes of dolmens.


Bugeun-ri Dolmens in Ganghwa

The Old Stone Age remains, stone-broken tools, stone axes and stone arrowheads including double blade axes were found in Jangjeong-ri Hajeom-myeon Ganghwa-gun Incheon Metropolitan City, especially Jiseokmyos (dolmens in English) the representative remains of the Bronze Age are a lot distributed. Ganghwa's Jiseokmyos are collectively found north of Goryeo Hill (460m above the sea), especially centering on the point that Sirumae Hill and plains meet. It is known that about 120 Jiseokmyos are distributed in Ganghwado, Northern-type Jiseokmyos 44, Southern-type Jiseokmyos 35 and others unknown in type. Ganghwa's Jiseokmyos are largely found on gentle slopes or hills of 30 to 40m at the seaside used as residential area or farmland.


The Jiseokmyo of Historic Spot No.137 indicates the largest single one of a lot of Jeseokmyos found in Bugeun-ri Hajeom-myeon, the whole area of Samgeo-ri, Hapo-ri Songhae-myeon, and so on. Its cover stone is 650cm long, 520cm wide, 120cm thick and 260cm high. It is supposed that a dead body was put in after supporting stones were first set up on the left and the right and a room for the dead body was made with one end stopped with a flat stone, and then the other end was blocked up, but blocking stones at both ends are currently gone with only supporting stones on both sides still remaining. And so the inside of the tomb room seems to be a long passage. Biotite gneisis common in Ganghwa was used in constructing it. This dolmen seems to have served as a monument symbolizing families who participated in constructing it, or an altar rather than as a tomb. About 80 dolmens including it are distributed in Ganghwa area. It is a giant Northern-type (table-type) dolmen rare in the central districts of Korea, and known to be the largest one in South Korea.






dag 11: In het vriendelijke dorpje Boseong is een aantal malen per week een kleine markt met veel lokale specialiteiten, vaak onlosmakelijk verbonden met groene thee. Ook rondom Boseong is er genoeg te zien: de Nagan Folk Village, een gewoon nog functionerend maar ook door Koreaanse toeristen en schoolklassen bezocht authentiek ruraal dorp gebouwd binnen de middeleeuwse verdedigingsmuren (tegen Japanse raids). Een locaal museumpje getuigt van die vroegere strijd en er zijn wapenrustingen en veel volks-gebruiksvoorwerpen te zien. Ook gaan we natuurlijk naar het grotendeels gerestaureerde euwenoude fort, de Gangjin Barracks waar Hendrik Hamel (zie beschrijving Jeju) zeven jaar heeft doorgebracht. De coulissen voor dit alles worden gevormd door het wonderschone berglandschap, zo typisch voor deze streek in het zuidwesten van Korea. Eén van deze dagen gaan we ook naar de meer dan 1000 jaar oude archeologisch gevonden en geconserveerde celadon (het wereldberoemde, typerend Koreaanse, groene porselein) en een bijbehorend zeer fraai en illustratief museum. Als er tijd is, kan ook een bezoek worden gebracht aan het megalieten-park, waar tal van prehistorische dolmen- en hunebed-achtige structuren staan opgesteld en alweer een fraai museum de nodige achtergronden biedt.





Anmyon Island (Anmyondo) is regarded as a gift of nature where crystal clear waters, coasts lined with strangely shaped rocks, and endless white sand beaches coalesce in picturesque harmony. Anmyondo is the 6th largest island in Korea with an area of 87.96 km©÷ and 120 km of long sandy seashores. The island consists of 10 beach resorts including ¡°Kot-chi," and is surrounded by other beautiful islands such as ¡°Napa-sudo" and ¡°Waepa-sudo." There are many other attractions on the island of Anmyon such as Dolmen, a 50~80 year-old pine forest that provides a natural recreation park often used for relaxation in the woods.  KOREA FLORITOPIA (http://floritopia.or.kr) will be held within this natural environment on Anmyon Island in 2002.







Gochang is the town with the most dolmen sites in Korea. Some of the dolmens in Dosan-ri, Sanggap-ri and Maesan-ri of the town are of the southern style whereas most of those in the rest of North Cholla Province are the northern style. This proves that a wide scope of culture existed in the town in the prehistoric times.








General Resources and Information on Korean Archeology





Dolmen discovered



Pyongyang, September 3 (KCNA) -- Historical relics have been unearthed in Korea. Recently, a research team of the Korean Central History Museum discovered 25 dolmens in Osan-ri, Sunan district, Pyongyang. The dolmen tombs are on ridges of Chongryong mountain range. A survey of tombs' structure and relics discovered there says that they are 3,500 years old.

Each of those tombs of Mukpang-ri type was built by piling up small stone plates to make a burial chamber and its roof was covered with one big flat stone. The burial chamber remains in its original state. This shows that people at that time had advanced stone-processing and stone-building knowhow. The floor of the chamber is rectangular. The size of the chamber of a tomb is 180 centimetres in length, 140 cm in width and 80 cm in depth. The flat stone is 360 cm long, 280 cm wide and 67 cm thick.

Seen in chambers were narrow brass dagger, stone dagger and arrowhead, dangling beads and human bones. Osan-ri dolmens are of high academic significance as precious materials which prove that Pyongyang was the centre of ancient Korea as well as of ancient culture.

In particular, the narrow brass dagger and other relics show that Pyongyang was the cradle of culture.




Survival Korean for Cyclists

Talking about bicycles. You're in luck, young grasshopper. Most bicycle parts can be expressed with Koreanized English (Konglish) words, like "pump," which becomes "pompuh." Here are some others:

bicycle: ja-jon-go

bicycle shop: ja-jon-go ka-gae

handlebars: handle

stem: staem

cranks: crahnkuh

pedals: petal

chain: chain

wheel: pak-hwee

tire: tire

seatpost: post-uh

bottom bracket: beebee (this also means 'beeper')

tube: tyoob-uh

bearing: bearing (Korea makes fine and cheap bearings, by the way. Stock up.)

wrench: wrenchy

puncture: punk (no kidding)

brake: buraek-uh

suspension: suspension

derailleur: derailleur



"Where is X?" "X ga oh-dee ee-soy-yo?"

"Help me."

hospital: byong-won

Gatorade: gatorade

"Let's go!" "Kaja!"

trail: deung-san-ro [note: there is no precise Korean word for trail. 'Narrow mountain way' or 'deung-san-ro' 'is as close as it gets, which can describe a dirt road in the mountains, or a backwoods singletrack. Use 'narrow mountain way' with caution. Sometimes Koreans use the word "course" or "corsuh" to talk about trails.]

beer: maekjoo

alcohol of any type: joo

mountain: san

this way: ee-jok

to the north: puk-jok

to the south: nam-jok

to the east: tong-jok

to the west: seo-jok

up: wee

down: ah-re

to the left: win-jok

to the right: orun-jok

straight ahead: cheek-chin

back, in the opposite direction: ban-dae-jok

You can use the following phrases to alert hikers to your presence. Korean hikers are generally very receptive to off-road cyclists, and are very impressed by the fact that bikes can negotiate the trails. There is little, if any, of the conflict found on US trails, despite huge numbers of trail users in Korea. There's a good chance you'll be the first mountain cyclist they've ever seen, and if you're not Korean, it's highly likely that you'll be the first non-Korean riding a trail that they've ever seen. This surprise sometimes produces a deer-in-the-headlights effect. Some hikers seem not to notice your alert no matter how polite or loud. In these situations you should just do as Korean mountain bikers do: pass them just like the buses and taxis drove past you on your way to the mountain. No really, you should just try to get their attention; most don't expect a bicycle to be on the trails, which tend toward the unrideable scale anyway. To wit:

"Coming through!" (very polite): "Shillye hamnida!"

"Hello." (polite): "Anyong hasaeyo."

"Watch out!" or "Careful!" (a little less polite): "Jo-shim-heyo!"


"It's broken." "Go-jang naseyo."

"I don't comprehend/understand." "Mol-ayo."

"I'm sorry." "Mee-an haeyo."

"Do you speak English?" "Yong-o mal haeyo?"

subway: ji-ha-chol

mountain spring: yaksoo

water: mool

good: cho-ayo

bad: napayo

o.k.: kwen-chon-ayo

fast: bali

slow: chon-chon-hee